A) The Junones

The ‘Mothers’ are sometimes associated with the Roman Junones, who are the guardians of women, as the Genius is the protector of men.439 The Junones (‘the Young Ones’), plural form of the goddess name Juno (‘the Young One’), represent the destiny of women from childbirth to death and ensure fertility.440 The Junones are honoured on their own for instance in Bordeaux (Gironde),441 Agen (Lot-et-Garonne),442 Nîmes (Gard),443 Aigues-Mortes (Gard),444 Néris-les-Bains (Allier),445 Rollainville (Vosges)446 and in Trier, Pützdorf, Zülpich, Wesseling and Xanten (Germany).447 The dedications to the Junones are also numerous in Cisalpine Gaul, with a significant concentration in the East of the province, between Aquilea and Lake Maggiore and more importantly in Verona and Brescia.448 According to Anwyl, the Junones must have had a role of healers when associated with places famous for their curative waters, such as Néris-les-Bains.449 This is probable since one of the functions of Juno was notably the protection of the health of women.450

Protecting women and embodying fertility were also functions of the Matres, which would explain why they were compared and assimilated to the Junones in four inscriptions from Cisalpine Gaul, in Arcisate (Lombardy): Matronis Iunonibus Valerius Baronis F. v.s.l.m., Como (Lombardy): Iunonib(us) Mátrón(ae) ex visu c. vir max, Verona: Iunoni[…] Matron[…],451 and from Cispadane Gaul, in Pitinum Pisaurense: Matronis Iunonibus […] Sacrum […].452 Similarly, the Matres Suleviae are named Junones in an inscription from Marquis (Pas-de-Calais).453 Another example is that of the Gabiae, who are called Matronae in Miel (Germany): Matronis Gabiabus Nelev[----] Cai fi[lius] vslm,454 and Junones in Cologne and Xanten: Iunoniibus Gabiabus Masius votum retulit ; Iunonibus sive Gabiabus m(onumentum).455 These various instances show that the term Junones was believed to be identical to the term Matronae. It may even have completely replaced it in some areas after the Roman invasion, such as in large parts of Cisalpine Gaul.456


Duval, 1957, p. 54.


Daremberg & Saglio, pp. 690-691 ; Brill’s, vol. 6, pp. 1107-1111 ; LIMC, vol. V.1, pp. 814-856, V.2, pp. 533-553 ; Green, 1992a, pp. 95, 126.


CIL XIII, 567: Iunonibus Iuliae et Sextiliae.


CIL XIII, 914: Iunonibus Augustale Porticum et Maceriam Capito […].


CIL XII 3067: Iunonib(us) Montan(is).


CIL XII, 4101: Iunonibus Aug(ustis).


CIL XII, 1373: N(umini)b(u)s A(u)g(ustoru)m (et) I(unoni)b(u)s v(ican)i N(erioma)g(ense)s, 1374: Numinibus Augustorum et Iunonibus Neriomagienses. For other instances, see Anwyl, 1906a, p. 32.


CIL XIII, 4704.


CIL XIII, 3642, 7860, 7920, 8158, 8622.


There are many examples in Cisalpine Gaul, such as CIL V 3234-3240 (Verona) ; Pascal, 1964, p. 117.


Anwyl, 1906a, p. 32.


Duval, 1957, p. 54 ; Brill’s, vol. 6, pp. 1107-1108.


CIL V, 5450, 5249, 3237.


CIL XI, 8082.


CIL XIII, 3561.


F 273.


CIL XIII, 8192, 8612.


Anwyl, 1906a, p. 32.