b) Germania Superior

Rosmerta and Mercurius were also venerated in Germania Superior, such as in Spechbach, on the right bank of the Rhine: [Mercu]rio [et Ros]mert(a)e [sac(rum) vi]cani [vici N]ediens(is),874 and in the territory of the Vangiones, such as in Alzey: [In hono]rem d(omus) d(ivinae) [deo Merc]urio et R[osmerte Se]cundius […ex] voto pos[uit laetu]s lib. [m.],875 and in Worms: Deo Mercuri(o) et Rosmerte L(ucius) Servandius Quietus ex voto in su(o) p(osuit). The dedicator L(ucius) Servandius Quietus bears the tria nomina of Roman citizens.876

In Cleinich (Neumagen), Mercurius is given a title of Celtic origin Abgatiacus. The inscription is the following: In hono[rem] d(omus) d(ivinae) Mercur[io] Abgatiac[o? et] Rosmertae aedem qu[e… ?], ‘In Honour of the Divine House and to Mercurius Abgatiacus and Rosmerta (the dedicator) had this temple erected and [...]’.877 The votive formula In h.d.d. indicates that the inscription dates from the end of the 2nd c. AD or the first half of the 3rd c. AD.878 Abgatiacus could be seen as an indigenous divine epithet or name, but, as Lambert clarifies, words ending in –iaco are localizing epithets which refer to a place owned by a person or to the name of a landowner.879 Like Mercurius Dubnocaratiacus and Rosmerta Dubnocaratiacusin Champoulet are ‘Mercurius’andRosmerta of the property of Dubnocaratius’, Mercurius Abgatiacus must be ‘Mercurius of the domain of Abgatiacus’. The proper name Abgatiacus is undoubtedly Celtic but is not attested anywhere else.

In the dedication from Ueß (Mayen), Mercurius is associated with a Celtic epithet Excingiorigiatus: In h(onorem) d(omus) d(ivinae) deo Mercurio Excingiorigiati et Ro[s]mert(a)e C. Satu[r]ninius Viriaucus v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) l(aetus) m(erito). Aedem d(ono) d(edit), ‘In Honour of the Divine House, to Mercurius Excingiorigiatus and Rosmerta, C. Satuninius Viriaucus paid his vow willingly, gladly and deservedly. He offers this temple at his own expense’.880 The use of the votive formulas In h. d. d. and deo prove that the inscription dates from the first half of the 3rd c. AD.881 The first element of this byname* ex-cingo-, with ex-, ‘out of’ and cingo-, ‘warrior’ or ‘hero’, means ‘the one who leaves to attack’ or ‘the one who goes forward’.882 It seems clear that the second element rigiatis is cognate with Gaulish rix, ‘king’ (< *rīx, *rīgos).883 Excingiorigiatus may therefore be glossed as ‘King of Warriors’ or ‘He who Rules the Attackers’.884 Excingiorigiatus could be interpreted either as an epithet given to Mercurius or as the name of an individual indigenous god, later juxtaposed to Mercurius through the process of the interpretatio Romana. Lambert, however, points out that Excingiorigiatus is derived from a proper name Excingiorix or a gentilice* Excingiorigius, which would be the name of the owner of the property to which Mercurius belonged.885 The dedicator bears the tria nomina of the Roman citizens; his cognomen* is Celtic though: Viriaucus (<*Viriāco-).886 This must indicate that his father was a peregrine* of Celtic origin.


CIL XIII, 6388.


CIL XIII, 6263.


CIL XIII, 6222.


F. 80 ; Delamarre, 2007, p. 9. Lambert, Delamarre and Olmsted do not suggest an etymology* for this name.


Raepsaet-Charlier, 1993, pp. 9-11.


Lambert, 2008, pp. 1-2.


AE 1935, 29 ; N. 137 ; Delamarre, 2007, p. 99.


Raepsaet-Charlier, 1993, pp. 9-11 ; Raepsaet-Charlier, 2001, p. X.


Delamarre, 2003, pp. 169, 116 ; Delamarre, 2007, pp. 99-100: excingo-, ‘warrior’ or ‘attacker’ is very frequent in Celtic onomatics, e.g. Excingus, Excingomarus, Exciggorigis, etc.


Delamarre, 2003, pp. 260-261. For example: Ver-cingeto-rix, ‘Supreme King of Warriors’.


Olmsted, 1994, p. 338 proposes ‘He who Rules through Striding’, which is less probable.


Lambert, 2006, p. 54.


N 137 ; Delamarre, 2007, p. 201.