c) Boudina/Boudiga (‘Victory’)

The notion of triumph is also embodied by a goddess named Boudina, who is known from three inscriptions. The nameBoudina is based on the Celtic root boudi- meaning ‘victory, advantage, profit’.1615 Boudina (‘the Victorious One’) is thus the personification of victory and probably similar in functions to the Roman war-goddess Victory. It can also be related to the name of the British Queen Bouddica (‘Victorious’), who, as we have seen, led the Iceni against the Romans in 60 AD.

As detailed in Chapter 2, Boudina is associated with the goddess Alauna, ‘Nurturer’ (?) in two dedications from Pantenburg (Germany): [Bo]udi{i}n{u}ae [et] Alaunae C(aius) Sextilius Sollemnis, ‘To Boudina and Alauna, Caius Sextilius Sollemnis’ and Deo Voroi[o] Boudina E et Alau{i}nae C(aius) Sextilius Sollemnis, ‘To the god Voroio, Boudina (E?) and Alauina, Caius Sextilius Sollemnis’.1616 The two dedicators bear the tria nomina of Roman citizens.In Liesenich (Germany), Boudina is honoured together with the Celtic gods Vindoridius and Mars Smertrius: In h(onorem) d(omus) d(ivinae) numin[i] Marti Smertrio et [---] Uindoridio Boud[i]nae Cn(aeus) Domitius C[n(aei?) fil(ius).1617 The votive formula In h.d.d. allows us to date the inscription from the middle of the 2nd c. AD to the middle of the 3rd c.1618

Boudina is etymologically related to the goddess Boudiga (‘Victory’), honoured in an inscription discovered in 1921 in re-employment* in the wall of the city of Bordeaux (Gironde): Deae Tutel(a)e Boudig(ae) M. Aurelius Lunaris (se)vir Aug(ustalis) col(oniarum) Ebor(aci) et Lind(i) prov(inciae) Brit(anniae) Inf(erioris) aram vover(at) ab Eboraci avect(us) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) Perpetuo et Corne(liano consulibus).1619 The dedicator M. Aurelius Lunaris has Latin names and bears the tria nomina of Roman citizens. He was a merchant from Britanny and augustal sevir, that is a freed slave in charge of the Imperial cult of the city, in York and Lincoln. Boudiga is attributed the Roman divine title of Tutela, who is venerated on her own in three other inscriptions from Bordeaux.1620 As explained under Vesunna, who is the Tutela of the chief city of the Pertrucori in Dordogne, the Tutela was the personification and protectress of a city, who ensured prosperity and safety.1621 This inscription indicates that the Tutela of Bordeaux, that is the protective goddess of the city, was called Boudiga. This role is attested by her name denoting success and triumph.

It is worth noting that the epithet of the Matronae Boudunneae / Boudunnehae, venerated in two dedications from Cologne (Germania Inferior), is also derived from the Celtic root boudi-, ‘victory’. The ending in –ehae indicates that these deities are Germanized or Germanic mother goddesses. The dedications are the following: Matronis Boudunnehis Dossonia Paterna, ‘To the Matronae Boudunnehae Dossonia Paterna’ and Matron[is] Boudunn[eis] M(arcus) Nigrin[ius] Serenu[s] vsl[m], ‘To the Matronae Boudunneae Marcus Nigrinius Serenus paid his vow willingly and deservedly’.1622 In the first inscription, the dedicator is a woman, whose praenomen*, Dossonia, is Celtic.1623 The dedicator of the second inscription bears the tria nomina of Roman citizens.


Evans, 1967, pp. 156-158 ; Delamarre, 2003, pp. 83-84 ; Delamarre, 2007, p. 214.


F 82, 83 ; AE 1982, 667.


CIL XIII, 11975 ; F. 82, 83.


Raepsaet-Charlier, 1993, pp. 9-11.


AE 1922, 116 ; ILTG 141 ; RG 6932.


Jullian, 1887, vol. 1, pp. 59-66, n°20: Tutelae Aug(ustae) C(aius) Octavius Vitalis ex voto posuit. L(ocus) d(atus) ex d(ecreto) d(ecurionum). Dedic(atum) decimum k(alendas) Juliano iterum et Crispino co(n)s(ulibus) ; n°20bis, pp. 66-76: Tutelae Aug. Lascivos Cani L. ex voto L. D. EX. D. D.


Daremberg & Saglio, pp. 553-554 ; Paulys,vol. 7.A.2, pp. 1497-1607 ; Jullian, 1887, vol. 1, pp. 61-66.


CIL XIII, 8217 ; AE 1969/70, 440.


Delamarre, 2007, p. 89.