III) Gaulish and British Healing Spring-Goddesses

Archaeological evidence from Gaul and Britain proves that the worship of water was not limited to river-goddesses: many a fountain and healing spring was embodied and presided over by a goddess. While some goddesses protected specific fountains, wells or springs - such as Acionna, whose cult is attested at the Fontain l’Etuvée in Loiret, Mogontia and Icovellauna at the spring of Le Sablon in Moselle, Coventina at the well of Carrawburgh in Northumbria, Bricta at the thermal springs of Luxeuil-les-Bains (Haute-Saône) and Stanna / Sianna at the healing spring of Mont-Dore (Puy-de-Dôme) - others, such as Damona and Sirona, were worshipped on a larger scale by various peoples and in different parts of Gaul. What were the functions of those fountain and spring-goddesses? How were they revered and by whom? The first part will deal with goddesses presiding over local fountains or wells, which do not seem to have had any particular mineral or therapeutic virtues in ancient times, and the second part will analyse goddesses whose cult is attached to thermal waters.